After Solomon dies, his son, Rehoboam takes over and does a horrible job resulting in Israel (except Judah) rejecting him and making Jeroboam their king. Jeroboam didn't want Israel to go back to Rehoboam when they went to the Temple in Jerusalem so he built two gold calves and placed them on either side of the kingdom and told the people that these were the gods that brought them out of Egypt (1 Kings 12:27-30). This sin of Jeroboam's is then continually referenced for the rest of the Old Testament.
Did the people not know their history? Aaron built them a calf in the desert when Moses was up on Mount Sinai after they had seen miracles from the Almighty! I guess this goes to show that we fall into similar sins. Paul told the Corinthians that "No temptation has overtaken you except what is common to mankind. And God is faithful; he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted he will also provide a way out so that you can endure it" (1 Corinthians 10:13).